The electrical energy produced in the power plants is transported to the inhabited areas by laying high-voltage conductive cables over hundreds of kilometers. The voltage decreases as the electricity gets closer to the industrial estates or population centers, until reaching low voltage levels. Already inside the populations, electricity is distributed through buried conduits. You can Click Here for the best option here.
The operations of lowering and rising of tension are carried out in the transformer stations, which are located at the exit of the plants, at the entrance of the cities and in the distribution nodes of the network.
Electricity is caused by the movement of electrical charges inside conductive materials. This energy produces, essentially, 3 effects: luminous, thermal and magnetic. The one transported by the electric current in our houses and that is manifested when lighting a light bulb.
How is electricity distributed and obtained?
The process to move from one energy to another is based on the water cycle.
- They take the water that flows down the rivers from the mountain range.
- These waters reach a hydroelectric power station, through large pipelines
- With the force that comes, the water manages to move an apparatus that generates electricity.
Each time a switch is actuated, an electrical circuit is closed and the movement of electrons through the conductor cable is generated. The charges that move are part of the atoms of the substance of the cable, which is usually metallic, since metals having more free electrons than other substances are the best conductors of electricity.
In the electricity supply system three different parts can be distinguished:
The generation: produces the energy necessary to satisfy the consumption in the Power Plants. These plants are far from the points of consumption, so you have to transport the energy generated in them.
Transport: which allows the energy produced in the power plants to be taken to the consumption centers.
Distribution: makes it possible for energy to reach final customers.
Let’s see a scheme and summary of how energy is generated and distributed until it reaches individuals or homes.
As you can see once the electricity is generated in the power plants, the voltage rises (increases) to take it to the cities through the Transportation or Transmission Power Network. The transmission lines can be of different voltages, from the smallest that transport it to 132,000 Volts to the largest with energy transport at 380,000 Volts. These transport tensions may vary depending on the Country.
Why is Electricity Transported in High Voltage?
We see how electric power is generated at 20Kv and the voltage is raised to transport it in high voltage (132-400 Kilo Volts). Why?. Well, so that the section of the cables where you travel is as small as possible and reduce costs. Let’s see why it is so.
As Energy = Power x time; and
The Power = Voltage x Intensity.
P = V x I If we raise the voltage a lot, the Intensity, to carry the same power, will be small and the smaller the intensity, the lower the conductor section(A driver’s section is directly proportional to the intensity that passes through it). In other words, to transport the same power, if we raise the voltage the intensity is decreased and therefore the section (how fat it is) of the cables is decreased.